Replacing China imports difficult, yet possible, even in Electric Vehicles

即使在電動汽車領域,要想取代中國的進口汽車也很困難,但卻有可能


Replacing Chinese products is easier said than done. The dragon has over the past thirty years built up its manufacturing capacities, which India has not. After liberalisation of the nineties, India has become one of the largest markets for computers, telephones, bulk drugs, organic chemicals, solar energy and electric vehicles. But it has not developed core manufacturing capability and has been a peripheral assembler where over 50 % of the critical components have to be imported into the country for production. We do not have a conducive ecosystem for manufacturing, and while politicians over the past seventy years have been devising new slogans to urge self dependence, they have lacked the spine to change the IAS dominated bureaucracy, that makes doing business in India so very difficult.

取代中國產品說起來容易,做起來難。在過去的30年里,中國龍建立了自己的制造體系,而印度卻沒有。上世紀90年代自由化后,印度已成為電腦、電話、原料藥、有機化學品、太陽能和電動汽車的最大市場之一。但印度沒有發展核心制造能力,一直是外圍組裝商,其中國內生產需要的關鍵部件超過50%都必須從國外進口。我們沒有有利于制造業的生態系統,而在過去的70年里,政治家們一直在設計新的口號來敦促自力更生,他們沒有勇氣改變印度的管理制度主導的官僚主義,官僚主義下的印度做生意非常困難。


Rare Earths dominance does not make China indispensable:

稀土的主導地位并不意味著中國不可或缺:



China invested not only in the mining and processing of rare-earths but also became a leading producer of electric controllers, DC motors, miniature circuit breakers, axle assemblies, brushless motors, lithium ion batteries along with solar panels, charging stations, and storage systems. India started a decade later. The electric two wheeler market is dominated by Bajaj, TVS, Honda and Hero. Today Neelam E Rickshaws of Ludhiana, Delhi based Saarthi and Bahubali, Tamilnadu based Ampere, Hyderabad based Gayam and other MSME units make lakhs of high quality E rickshaws every year competing with the likes of industry heavyweights like Mahindra and Kinetic who have recently entered the field. Other than the axle and the controller all parts are made in India. Sona Steerings and Bharat Forge need to speed up the axle projects to improve localisation. E rickshaws mostly use lead acid batteries and for lithium-ion batteries, they import from China. That could change in the near future, as Suzuki is investing Rs 5000 crores in Lithium-ion batteries as electric car and bus manufacturing cannot really succeed without indigenously produced batteries.

中國不僅投資于稀土的開采和加工,而且還成為了電子控制器、直流電機、小型斷路器、軸組件、無刷電機、鋰離子電池以及太陽能電池板、充電站和存儲系統的主要生產國。印度則晚了十年。印度電動自行車市場由巴賈杰、TVS、本田和英雄等主導。如今,位于盧迪亞納的Neelam E、德里的Saarthi和Bahubali、泰米爾納德邦的Ampere、海得拉巴的Gayam和其他微型及中小型企業每年生產10萬輛高質量的電動人力車,與最近進入該領域的行業巨頭馬恒達和凱帝珂等競爭。除了車軸和控制器,所有部件都是印度制造。Sona軸承和巴拉特鍛造要加快軸承項目,提高本地化水平。電動三輪車主要使用鉛酸電池,而鋰離子電池則從中國進口。這種情況在不久的將來可能會改變,因為鈴木在鋰離子電池上投資了500億盧比,因為如果沒有自主生產的電池,電動汽車和公共汽車的制造就無法真正取得成功。